Python – Number, Data sorts shop numeric values. They are immutable records kinds, approach that converting the value of quite a number information type results in a newly allotted object.

Number gadgets are created while you assign a value to them. For instance −

var1 = 1

var2 = 10

You also can delete the connection with more than a few object with the aid of the use of the del declaration. The syntax of the del statement is −

del var1[,var2[,var3[....,varN]]]]

You can delete a single item or a couple of items via using the del assertion. For example −

del var

del var_a, var_b

Python supports four special numerical kinds −

- int (signed integers) − They are frequently called just integers or ints, are nice or negative whole numbers with no decimal factor.

- Lengthy (lengthy integers ) − Also called longs, they’re integers of limitless size, written like integers and followed by means of an uppercase or lowercase L.
- Flow (floating point real values) − Also referred to as floats, they represent real numbers and are written with a decimal factor dividing the integer and fractional elements. Floats can also be in medical notation, with E or e indicating the power of 10 (2.5e2 = 2.5 x 102 = 250).
- Complex (complex numbers) − are of the form a + bJ, wherein a and b are floats and J (or j) represents the square root of -1 (which is an imaginary quantity). The actual part of the number is a, and the imaginary element is b. Complex numbers are not used lots in Python programming.

### Examples

Here are some examples of numbers

int | long | float | complex |
---|---|---|---|

10 | 51924361L | 0.0 | 3.14j |

100 | -0x19323L | 15.20 | 45.j |

-786 | 0122L | -21.9 | 9.322e-36j |

080 | 0xDEFABCECBDAECBFBAEL | 32.3+e18 | .876j |

-0490 | 535633629843L | -90. | -.6545+0J |

-0x260 | -052318172735L | -32.54e100 | 3e+26J |

0x69 | -4721885298529L | 70.2-E12 | 4.53e-7j |

- Python lets in you to use a lowercase L with long, but it’s far endorsed which you use most effective an uppercase L to keep away from confusion with the #1. Python presentations lengthy integers with an uppercase L.

- A complicated wide variety includes an ordered pair of real floating point numbers denoted through a + bj, wherein a is the real component and b is the imaginary a part of the complex range.

### Number Type Conversion

Python converts numbers internally in an expression containing mixed kinds to a not unusual kind for evaluation. But from time to time, you need to coerce more than a few explicitly from one type to some other to fulfill the requirements of an operator or function parameter.

- Type int(x) to transform x to a undeniable integer.
- Type lengthy(x) to convert x to a protracted integer.
- Type glide(x) to convert x to a floating-point wide variety.
- Type complex(x) to transform x to a complicated range with real part x and imaginary component zero.
- Type complex(x, y) to convert x and y to a complex wide variety with real part x and imaginary component y. X and y are numeric expressions

## Mathematical Functions

Python consists of following functions that perform mathematical calculations.

Sr.No. | Function & Returns ( description ) |
---|---|

1 | abs(x)The absolute value of x: the (positive) distance between x and zero. |

2 | ceil(x)The ceiling of x: the smallest integer not less than x |

3 | cmp(x, y)-1 if x < y, 0 if x == y, or 1 if x > y |

4 | exp(x)The exponential of x: e^{x} |

5 | fabs(x)The absolute value of x. |

6 | floor(x)The floor of x: the largest integer not greater than x |

7 | log(x)The natural logarithm of x, for x> 0 |

8 | log10(x)The base-10 logarithm of x for x> 0. |

9 | max(x1, x2,…)The largest of its arguments: the value closest to positive infinity |

10 | min(x1, x2,…)The smallest of its arguments: the value closest to negative infinity |

11 | modf(x)The fractional and integer parts of x in a two-item tuple. Both parts have the same sign as x. The integer part is returned as a float. |

12 | pow(x, y)The value of x**y. |

13 | round(x [,n])x rounded to n digits from the decimal point. Python rounds away from zero as a tie-breaker: round(0.5) is 1.0 and round(-0.5) is -1.0. |

14 | sqrt(x)The square root of x for x > 0 |

## Random Number Functions

Python – Number, Random numbers are used for games, simulations, testing, safety, and privateness applications. Python consists of following functions that are typically used.

Sr.No. | Function & Description |
---|---|

1 | choice(seq)A random item from a list, tuple, or string. |

2 | randrange ([start,] stop [,step])A randomly selected element from range(start, stop, step) |

3 | random()A random float r, such that 0 is less than or equal to r and r is less than 1 |

4 | seed([x])Sets the integer starting value used in generating random numbers. Call this function before calling any other random module function. Returns None. |

5 | shuffle(lst)Randomizes the items of a list in place. Returns None. |

6 | uniform(x, y)A random float r, such that x is less than or equal to r and r is less than y |

## Python – Number, Trigonometric Functions

Python includes following functions that carry out trigonometric calculations.

Sr.No. | Function & Description |
---|---|

1 | acos(x)Return the arc cosine of x, in radians. |

2 | asin(x)Return the arc sine of x, in radians. |

3 | atan(x)Return the arc tangent of x, in radians. |

4 | atan2(y, x)Return atan(y / x), in radians. |

5 | cos(x)Return the cosine of x radians. |

6 | hypot(x, y)Return the Euclidean norm, sqrt(x*x + y*y). |

7 | sin(x)Return the sine of x radians. |

8 | tan(x)Return the tangent of x radians. |

9 | degrees(x)Converts angle x from radians to degrees. |

10 | radians(x)Converts angle x from degrees to radians. |

## Python – Number, Mathematical Constants

The module also defines two mathematical constants −

Sr.No. | Constants & Description |
---|---|

1 | piThe mathematical constant pi. |

2 | eThe mathematical constant e. |